Accounting Standard (AS) 16
The objective of this Standard is to prescribe the accounting treatment for borrowing costs.
1. This Standard should be applied in accounting for borrowing costs.
2. This Standard does not deal with the actual or imputed cost of owners’ equity, including preference share capital not classified as a liability.
3. The following terms are used in this Standard with the meanings specified:
3.1 Borrowing costs are interest and other costs incurred by an enterprise in connection with the borrowing of funds.
3.2 A qualifying asset is an asset that necessarily takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use or sale.
What constitutes a substantial period of time primarily depends on the facts and circumstances of each case. However, ordinarily, a period of twelve months is considered as substantial period of time unless a shorter or longer period can be justified on the basis of facts and circumstances of the case. In estimating the period, time which an asset takes, technologically and commercially, to get it ready for its intended use or sale is considered.
4. Borrowing costs may include:
(a) interest and commitment charges on bank borrowings and other short-term and longterm borrowings;
(b) amortisation of discounts or premiums relating to borrowings;
(c) amortisation of ancillary costs incurred in connection with the arrangement of borrowings;
(d) finance charges in respect of assets acquired under finance leases or under other similar arrangements; and
(e) exchange differences arising from foreign currency borrowings to the extent that they are regarded as an adjustment to interest costs.
Exchange differences arising from foreign currency borrowing and considered as borrowing costs are those exchange differences which arise on the amount of principal of the foreign currency borrowings to the extent of the difference between interest on local currency borrowings and interest on foreign currency borrowings. Thus, the amount of exchange difference not exceeding the difference between interest on local currency borrowings and interest on foreign currency borrowings is considered as borrowings cost to be accounted for under this Standard and the remaining exchange difference, if any, is accounted for under AS 11, The Effect of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates. For this purpose, the interest rate for the local currency borrowings is considered as that rate at which the enterprise would have raised the borrowings locally had the enterprise not decided to raise the foreign currency borrowings.
The application of this explanation is illustrated in the Illustration attached to the Standard.
5. Examples of qualifying assets are manufacturing plants, power generation facilities, inventories that require a substantial period of time to bring them to a saleable condition, and investment properties. Other investments, and those inventories that are routinely manufactured or otherwise produced in large quantities on a repetitive basis over a short period of time, are not qualifying assets. Assets that are ready for their intended use or sale when acquired also are not qualifying assets.
6. Borrowing costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of a qualifying asset should be capitalised as part of the cost of that asset. The amount of borrowing costs eligible for capitalisation should be determined in accordance with this Standard. Other borrowing costs should be recognised as an expense in the period in which they are incurred.
7. Borrowing costs are capitalised as part of the cost of a qualifying asset when it is probable that they will result in future economic benefits to the enterprise and the costs can be measured reliably. Other borrowing costs are recognised as an expense in the period in which they are incurred.
Borrowing Costs Eligible for Capitalisation
8. The borrowing costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of a qualifying asset are those borrowing costs that would have been avoided if the expenditure on the qualifying asset had not been made. When an enterprise borrows funds specifically for the purpose of obtaining a particular qualifying asset, the borrowing costs that directly relate to that qualifying asset can be readily identified.
9. It may be difficult to identify a direct relationship between particular borrowings and a qualifying asset and to determine the borrowings that could otherwise have been avoided. Such a difficulty occurs, for example, when the financing activity of an enterprise is co-ordinated centrally or when a range of debt instruments are used to borrow funds at varying rates of interest and such borrowings are not readily identifiable with a specific qualifying asset. As a result, the determination of the amount of borrowing costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of a qualifying asset is often difficult and the exercise of judgement is required.
10. To the extent that funds are borrowed specifically for the purpose of obtaining a qualifying asset, the amount of borrowing costs eligible for capitalisation on that asset should be determined as the actual borrowing costs incurred on that borrowing during the period less any income on the temporary investment of those borrowings.
11. The financing arrangements for a qualifying asset may result in an enterprise obtaining borrowed funds and incurring associated borrowing costs before some or all of the funds are used for expenditure on the qualifying asset. In such circumstances, the funds are often temporarily invested pending their expenditure on the qualifying asset. In determining the amount of borrowing costs eligible for capitalisation during a period, any income earned on the temporary investment of those borrowings is deducted from the borrowing costs incurred.
12. To the extent that funds are borrowed generally and used for the purpose of obtaining a qualifying asset, the amount of borrowing costs eligible for capitalisation should be determined by applying a capitalisation rate to the expenditure on that asset. The capitalisation rate should be the weighted average of the borrowing costs applicable to
the borrowings of the enterprise that are outstanding during the period, other than borrowings made specifically for the purpose of obtaining a qualifying asset. The amount of borrowing costs capitalised during a period should not exceed the amount of borrowing costs incurred during that period.
Excess of the Carrying Amount of the Qualifying Asset over Recoverable Amount
13. When the carrying amount or the expected ultimate cost of the qualifying asset exceeds its recoverable amount or net realisable value, the carrying amount is written down or written off in accordance with the requirements of other Accounting Standards. In certain circumstances, the amount of the write-down or write-off is written back in accordance with those other Accounting Standards.
Commencement of Capitalisation
14. The capitalisation of borrowing costs as part of the cost of a qualifying asset should commence when all the following conditions are satisfied:
(a) expenditure for the acquisition, construction or production of a qualifying asset is being incurred;
(b) borrowing costs are being incurred; and
(c) activities that are necessary to prepare the asset for its intended use or sale are in progress.
15. Expenditure on a qualifying asset includes only such expenditure that has resulted in payments of cash, transfers of other assets or the assumption of interest-bearing liabilities. Expenditure is reduced by any progress payments received and grants received in connection with the asset (see Accounting Standard 12, Accounting for Government Grants). The average carrying amount of the asset during a period, including borrowing costs previously capitalised, is normally a reasonable approximation of the expenditure to which the capitalisation rate is applied in that period.
16. The activities necessary to prepare the asset for its intended use or sale encompass more than the physical construction of the asset. They include technical and administrative work prior to the commencement of physical construction, such as the activities associated with obtaining permits prior to the commencement of the physical construction. However, such activities exclude the holding of an asset when no production or development that changes the asset’s condition is taking place. For example, borrowing costs incurred while land is under development are capitalised during the period in which activities related to the development are being undertaken. However, borrowing costs incurred while land acquired for building purposes is held without any associated development activity do not qualify for capitalisation.
Suspension of Capitalisation
17. Capitalisation of borrowing costs should be suspended during extended periods in which active development is interrupted.
18. Borrowing costs may be incurred during an extended period in which the activities necessary to prepare an asset for its intended use or sale are interrupted. Such costs are costs of holding partially completed assets and do not qualify for capitalisation. However, capitalisation of borrowing costs is not normally suspended during a period when substantial technical and administrative work is being carried out. Capitalisation of borrowing costs is also not suspended when a temporary delay is a necessary part of the process of getting an asset ready for its intended use or sale. For example, capitalisation continues during the extended period needed for inventories to mature or the extended period during which high water levels delay construction of a bridge, if such high water levels are common during the construction period in the geographic region involved.
Cessation of Capitalisation
19. Capitalisation of borrowing costs should cease when substantially all the activities necessary to prepare the qualifying asset for its intended use or sale are complete.
20. An asset is normally ready for its intended use or sale when its physical construction or production is complete even though routine administrative work might still continue. If minor modifications, such as the decoration of a property to the user’s specification, are all that are outstanding, this indicates that substantially all the activities are complete.
21. When the construction of a qualifying asset is completed in parts and a completed part is capable of being used while construction continues for the other parts, capitalisation of borrowing costs in relation to a part should cease when substantially all the activities necessary to prepare that part for its intended use or sale are complete.
22. A business park comprising several buildings, each of which can be used individually, is an example of a qualifying asset for which each part is capable of being used while construction continues for the other parts. An example of a qualifying asset that needs to be complete before any part can be used is an industrial plant involving several processes which are carried out in sequence at different parts of the plant within the same site, such as a steel mill.
23. The financial statements should disclose:
(a) the accounting policy adopted for borrowing costs; and
(b) the amount of borrowing costs capitalised during the period.
Note: This illustration does not form part of the Accounting Standard. Its purpose is to assist in clarifying the meaning of paragraph 4(e) of the Standard.
XYZ Ltd. has taken a loan of USD 10,000 on April 1, 20X3, for a specific project at an interest rate of 5% p.a., payable annually. On April 1, 20X3, the exchange rate between the currencies was Rs. 45 per USD. The exchange rate, as at March 31, 20X4, is Rs. 48 per USD. The corresponding amount could have been borrowed by XYZ Ltd. in local currency at an interest rate of 11 per cent annum as on April 1, 20X3.
The following computation would be made to determine the amount of borrowing costs for the purposes of paragraph 4(e) of AS 16:
(i) Interest for the period = USD 10,000 × 5% × Rs. 48/USD = Rs. 24,000.
(ii) Increase in the liability towards the principal amount = USD 10,000 × (48–45) = Rs. 30,000.
(iii) Interest that would have resulted if the loan was taken in Indian currency = USD 10,000 × 45 × 11% = Rs. 49,500.
(iv) Difference between interest on local currency borrowing and foreign currency borrowing = Rs. 49,500 – Rs. 24,000 = Rs. 25,500.
Therefore, out of Rs. 30,000 increase in the liability towards principal amount, only Rs. 25,500 will be considered as the borrowing cost. Thus, total borrowing cost would be Rs. 49,500 being the aggregate of interest of Rs. 24,000 on foreign currency borrowings [covered by paragraph 4(a) of AS 16] plus the exchange difference to the extent of difference between interest on local currency borrowing and interest on foreign currency borrowing of Rs. 25,500. Thus, Rs. 49,500 would be considered as the borrowing cost to be accounted for as per AS 16 and the remaining Rs. 4,500 would be considered as the exchange difference to be accounted for as per Accounting Standard (AS) 11, The Effects of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates.
In the above example, if the interest rate on local currency borrowings is assumed to be 13% instead of 11%, the entire exchange difference of Rs. 30,000 would be considered as borrowing costs, since in that case the difference between the interest on local currency borrowings and foreign currency borrowings [i.e. Rs. 34,500 (Rs. 58,500 – Rs. 24,000)] is more than the exchange difference of Rs. 30,000. Therefore, in such a case, the total borrowing cost would be Rs. 54,000 (Rs. 24,000 + Rs. 30,000) which would be accounted for under AS 16 and there would be no exchange difference to be accounted for under AS 11, The Effects of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates.